Cadmium level and severity of peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease

Title Cadmium level and severity of peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease
Journal European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Authors Ujueta F, Arenas IA, Diaz D, et al.
Year Published 2018
Link to article

Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) both share similar risk factor profiles, representing a high disease burden and cost worldwide. Yet the preferential development of CAD, PAD, or both in individual patients is not fully understood. As part of a study of toxic metals in patients with vascular disease, we explored toxic metal profiles in three principal diagnoses: CAD, PAD, and PAD with critical limb ischemia (CLI). CLI is the most advanced form of PAD and carries a high (up to 55%) one-year risk of major vascular events. The principal target of this investigation was cadmium, a toxic atherogenic transition metal of which the principal environmental sources are smoking and diet. The present study suggests that cadmium accumulation may be a quantitative risk factor for graded development of symptomatic disease of the lower extremities, from low cadmium burden in CAD only, intermediate cadmium burden in CAD+simple PAD, and highest cadmium burden in the most severe form of PAD – CLI.